Today’s world has witnessed the change in technology in each and every field. The field of chromatography is not an exception to this. In order to fulfill research needs in various fields related to separation, purification and identification of chemical constituents, the field of chromatography has helped a lot. Several chromatographic techniques are widely used to separate and identify plants phytoconstituents. Hence this book is written with an idea to highlight the importance of novel and contemporary chromatographic techniques which are used in identification of the phytoconstituents. The major emphasize is given on hyphenated techniques like LC-MS and GC-MS methods. These rapidly developing methods may help the students and the researchers to develop their own skills in separation of complex chemical constituents from various plants extracts. Botanists and plant scientists well versed with field are able to easily correlate the application of these techniques to the natural resources. Plants are having huge number of constituents and each of them definitely has some or the other therapeutic potential. Since the diversity of the plants and phytoconstituents present in it are enormous, the book consists of specific examples wherein such techniques have been successfully used and demonstrated their utility. Relevant references are quoted with proper citations and credit given to the authors in this book. The tables and spectra mentioned in the book are illustrative or are included for comparative purposes. The progress of the field of the Phytochemistry has helped to screen the plants to greater and accelerated extent.
Chapter 1 covers liquid chromatography (LC), in which stationary phase is solid and the mobile phase is liquid. Mass spectroscopy has been used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. The principle of mass spectroscopy (MS) is the generation of a large number of ions of the compound and then separating them according to the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). LC/MS has been used to find the molecular weight, structure, quantity, and identity of the compound under investigation.
Chapter 2 focuses on Gas chromatography and its hyphenated form GC / MS, in which Gas chromatography (GC) is coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS). The combination has advantage of high-resolution capacity of gas chromatography to isolate closely related molecules and the capacity of MS to provide reliable data to analyze and evaluate the isolated compounds. GC has been used in estimation of volatile components, fatty-acids, mono and sesquiterpenes, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds.
Chapter 3 deals with specific example of plant extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata which was prepared by ultrasonication technique. In this chapter the researchers have attempted to identify all the possible phytoconstituents and their natural adducts by hyphenated techniques like Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) and Electron Spray Ionization (ESI). The isolated compounds are alkaloids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, triterpenoids, and essential oils classes of phytoconstituents. Hence, with this elucidation, the team believes that a further study using LC-MS/MS or LC-NMR would reveal confirmatory information about the extract.
Chapter 4 focuses on GC-MS elucidation of different bioactive components in other plant Carissa congesta extract. The study revealed the presence of chemical entities of high and low molecular weight with differing proportions. The evaluation was based on the parameters of retention time, molecular formula, molecular weight and MS databases. The principal components found were unsaturated fatty acids and their esters followed by triterpenes, which play a significant therapeutic role. The components were found to be biologically and pharmacologically valued for their therapeutic importance.
Chapter 5 covers GC- MS elucidation of Tabernaemontana divaricata. The extract has shown the presence of alkaloids, tannins, hormones, saponins, proteins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and reducing sugars. The chapter covers thirty-five components such as Styrene, D-glycero-D-manno-, Mesitylene, Z,Z-2,5-Pentadecadien-1-ol, Pterin-6-carboxylic acid, L-α-Terpineol, Cyclodecanol, (-)-Carvone, 2-Myristynoyl pantetheine, Cubedol, Benzophenone, Palmitic acid, 9-Octadecanoic acid(Z), Stearic acid etc. These chapters would further help students and researchers to get proper insight to the important phytoconstituents present in various plants.
First edition of this book entitled as Guide to Phytochemical evaluation by LC-MS and GC-MS techniques focuses on basics and plant related examples of two well versed hyphenated chromatographic systems. With this edition, the opportunity has been taken to provide the interested readers and learners a useful guide to bridge the basic understanding and help to solve their practical problems. Some errors in this first edition of the book has been corrected, but others may remain and authors welcome the suggestions to improve on it.
As with first edition, the authors has been considerably motivated, seeked each other’s guidance and help and guidance throughout the course of this book. The main corresponding author like to thank his co-authors and his post graduate students who worked to grass route level in development of the techniques and chapters covered in this edition of the book.