In theoretical physics, various models of continuous moving medium are widely used. Underground of many modern physical models bases on conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. In this direction we would like to consider the classical mechanics, gas and fluid dynamics, relativistic theory, thermodynamics, statistical and quantum physics. Coming back from fundamental ideas of early XX century theoretical physics (first of all, from the recommendations by L. Boltzmann, M. Planсk, A. Einstein and L. de Broglie) allows us to indicate a correlation linking energy E with single mass value m, frequency ν and temperature T
E = mc2 = hν ≈ kT,
where с – light velocity, h and k – the Planсk and the Boltzmann constants. The last approximate equality in this relation follows from Planck’s distribution in vicinities of maximum radiation density of absolutely black body and presents itself Wien’s displacement law. This relation allows to define also the vacuum particle mass, when T ≠ 0. To be short, we change the virtual Plank resonators in his derivation of the formula for absolutely black body radiation the density by real (massive) particles with m = kT/c2. Also the possibility of radiation (including of electromagnetic waves, similar the virtual Planсk resonators) allows us to simulate these real particles as a classic Hertz’s dipoles.
Considering a particle concentration n and multiplying the above relations on n we can write
n∙mc2 ≈ n∙kT
and go to the typical ideal gas state equation
p ≈ ρc2 ≈ nkT.
Here ρ = n∙m – density, p – pressure of a medium. The last relation is the known mathematical form also for Avogadro’s law. So, we show that the famous ratios by L. Boltzmann, M. Planсk, A. Einstein and L. de Broglie are another form of the state equation of medium and Avogadro’s law. These relations may be used for classic answers so as Dark Matter (DM) to what comprises about 96% of the content of the Universe (i.e., what and why over 70% of the mass-energy content of the Universe is in form of the unknown vacuum Dark Energy (DE), over 20% of the mass is in the form of the mysterious DM).
The main target of our book shows the deep unity of various physics branches at the position of these relations and conservation laws. The first chapter considers conservation laws in thermodynamics and statistical physics. The analysis of the application for conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in the description of thermodynamic and statistical processes is performed. The fundamental limitations of the energy conservation law, which is traditionally used in phenomenological thermodynamics, are demonstrated. The correspondence of Hamilton’s statistical equations and the phenomenological conservation laws of momentum and energy is considered. The procedure for obtaining and properties of the Liouville phase volume conservation law in statistical physics is analyzed.
The second chapter demonstrates deep unity of classic and quantum physics at the space thermostat (ST) presence, which fulfilled all space by the temperature T0=2.73 K. The ST registration is one of the great achievements in experimental physics and astrophysics during of a few last decades and presents itself the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This chapter is devoted to ST/CMB medium the classic conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. We show the soliton like solutions of our classic model correspond to Schrodinger’s quantum solutions, demonstrate the atom hydrogen specter and other quantum peculiarities. The chapter contains typical technical examples classic/quantum simulation at the ST presence.
The third chapter analyzes thermal Brayton’s cycle and entropy nature. Any studied natural or technical systems have closed heat contact with the ST and some part of the system energy is dissipated into its. Additional peculiarities of Brayton’s cycle for jet propulsions are detail considered. At the ST presence the entropy nature may be clearly demonstrated and estimated. In particular, entropy growth correspond total pressure losses and energy dissipation in the external space.
The fourth chapter is devoted to conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in aerospace medium for simulation of thermo physical process (in particular, for external and internal aerodynamics). The united conservation laws are defined first of all by intensive interaction of gaseous medium and thermal radiation. We analyses basic designing complexities of high temperature air breathing engines related to origin of so-called “unexpected” heat of working process. The study considers some physical, chemical and plasma dynamical features of aerodynamics of re-entry space blunt bodies and meteors with specified account of thermal radiation influence. For experimental confirmation of our modeling we present special experimental data for thermal pressure registration. Using our approach we consider also the solution for the cold fusion problem (low energy nuclear reactions – LENR).
In the fifth chapter some aerospace thermo physical problems are analyzed in the light of modern experimental achievements. For the common classic physics design standard the thermodynamically compatible conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for radiate gaseous medium are written. By that the entropy growth presents the dissipative energy value on the level of external space gives pressure losses and determines the one time arrow. The chapter contains typical examples for aerospace propulsion solutions and simulation cosmic jets and waves.
The sixth chapter gives the detail study the remarkable role of thermal (in particular, radiation) effects in aerospace propulsion physics and in modern methodologies. There is described the closed systems of thermodynamic compatible conservation laws for air breathing theory. The high level working process models, based on the system of conservation laws, allow getting accurate simulation of thermodynamic processes for gas turbine engines.
The seventh chapter sets out the elements of the theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Integral semi empirical and differential LENR simulations based on the analysis of the mass excess for the initial and destination of combustion products are proposed. Our model fully relies on the basics of classical nuclear physics. It allows recommending new fuels for similar processes heat generation with the comparative assessments of their thermal efficiency.
The eighth chapter considers space thermal radiation in propulsion physics and in environment. Special experimental data for high temperature flows and shock waves are presented. We demonstrate the luminescence of shock waves and radiation equilibrium of high temperature jets, expiring from the aviation and rocket engine nozzles.
The ninth chapter is devoted to united conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for thermal processes in air breathing engines (ABE) and simulation of particle thermodynamics. The united conservation laws are defined by intensive interaction of gaseous medium and thermal radiation. In our modeling a radiate dynamics is described as motion of a continuous lightly movable medium with help of the “field” functions and the Euler variables. We analyze basic designing complexities of high temperature turbo and jet engines related to origin of additional heat losses of working process.
In the tenth chapter the experimental study of pressure variation in metal empty sealed container in low vacuum conditions is presented. Three characteristic areas of pressure variation were registered: the pressure growth in accordance with Avogadro’s law in the temperature range from 290 to 700-800 K, the pressure drop in the temperature range from 800 to 1300 K and again the intensive pressure increasing in the temperature range from 1300 to 1490 K.
The authors of chapters are grateful to R. Z. Nigmatullin for useful discussions and B.O. Muraviov for his help in preparation of chapters.