The book “Ecological principles” is written to full fill the utmost all enthusiastic desire of the students and research scholars. This book covers the all ecological aspects. Deforestation is on sharp rise in India and also is the rise and prevalence of temperature. Rise and prevalence of temperature leads to global warming. It is hoped that this book will provide sufficient information on all aspects of ecology and sure the deliberation of this book would be great help in managing the balanced life on this ecosystem. Ecological principles covers the basic concepts, ideas, findings and ecological challenges. As knowledge and best practice in ecology are constantly changing, the fundamentals are written in a sharply focused manner without overwhelming or excessive details. Present book provides a balanced information to all ecological major areas. It is designed to promote understanding of the basic principles and concepts of a subject rather than memorization of details. Authors feel that understanding ecology and environment as a whole is far more important than merely identifying separate components of a natural community. With this in mind, the students as well as researcher will come to understand some basic and underlying concepts, and authors trust that, through an understanding and appreciation of these concepts, the overall environmental picture of the Earth will be more fully realized and admired for what it is. Although the content of this book can be read independently of one another, they are arranged in a logical sequence. Our intention is to highlight only the essentials that are most relevant to understanding the principles of ecology and stereographical scales. The most significant feature of this book is its clear, up-to-date, accurate explanations of mechanisms, rather than the mere description of facts and events. The present book has been designed and written in a manner to meet the aspirations of graduate and postgraduate students as well as CSIR JRF-NET aspirants. Authors have tried to maintain a balance between describing the classic works and recent trends in ecology. This book is intended to go beyond the traditional helping books. The present book described the basic concept as well as advanced concepts of ecology viz. the Environment, Ecosystem Ecology, Population Ecology and Community Ecology), Biodiversity, Pollution and Climate change. It is organized to provide an even, logical flow of concepts and to provide clear illustrations of the major ecological and environmental issues. It is our hope that this book will be utilized intensively by students and ecologists to gain recent trends in ecology and its management .This book is the outcome of the combined efforts of several professors. Several diligent and hardworking minds have come together to bring out this book in this complete form. I render my grateful thanks and deep sense of gratitude to Dr. N.K. Dubey, Dr. Usha Dubey, Dr. R.P. Sinha and Dr. Sanjeev Kumar for regular guidance throughout the writing of this book.
Nayan K. Prasad
Department of Zoology, R.R.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
Department of Zoology, K.S. College, Laheriasarai, L.N. Mithila University, Darbhanga -846004, India.
Nayan K. Prasad
B P International
May 06, 2023