B P International operates the following policies for making corrections to the online versions of the books, book chapters or monographs. All corrections (except Errata) are peer-reviewed, and where possible they are sent to the same referees who reviewed the original manuscript to maintain uniformity of evaluation. A copy is usually also sent to the corresponding author for signed comments.
Decisions about types of correction are made by the Academic Editors, with the help of peer-reviewers’ advice. This process involves consultation with the authors of the paper, but the editor makes the final decision about the category in which the amendment is published.
An erratum is issued by the Academic Editor if an important error has been originated during the production of the book or book chapter or monograph by the publisher (one that affects the publication record, the scientific integrity of the published work, the reputation of the authors or of the Book), including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline (within 30 days of online publication) provided by the publisher.
B P International publishes errata for typing errors except where an apparently simple error is significant (for example, an incorrect unit). A significant error in a figure or table is corrected by the publication of a new corrected figure or table as an erratum, if necessary. If there is an error in the lettering on a figure, the usual procedure is to publish a sentence of rectification. A significant error in the figure itself is corrected by the publication of a new corrected figure as an erratum. The figure or table is republished only if the Editor considers it necessary.
A corrigendum is a notification of an important error made by the authors of the book chapter due to miscalculation or oversight. Readers wishing to draw the publisher’s attention to a significant published error should submit a statement/letter by email to the Academic Editor or directly to the Editorial office. Corrigenda are issued by the Academic editor, often with the help of peer-reviewers. All co-authors must sign an agreed wording. All authors must sign the corrigenda submitted for publication.
In cases where co-authors disagree, the Academic Editor will take advice from independent peer-reviewers and impose the appropriate amendment, noting the dissenting author(s) in the text of the published version.
In cases where some coauthors decline to sign a corrigendum or retraction, the editors reserve the right to publish it with the dissenting author(s) identified. B P International publishes corrigenda if there is an error in the published author list, but not for overlooked acknowledgements.
An addendum is a notification of a peer-reviewed addition of information to a book chapter or monograph, for example in response to a reader’s request for clarification. Addenda do not contradict the original publication, but if the author(s) inadvertently omitted significant information available at the time, this material can be published as an addendum after peer review.
Addenda are published only rarely and only when the editors decide that the addendum is crucial to the reader’s understanding of a significant part of the published contribution.
A retraction is a notification of invalid results. Retractions are judged according to whether the main conclusion of the book chapter or monograph is seriously undermined as a result, for example, of subsequent information coming to light of which the authors were not aware at the time of publication. A retraction of a book chapter or monograph will be issued by the Academic Editor. It is done either following an author’s request or a third party’s report of scientific misconduct.
In the case of experimental research, this can include e.g. further experiments by the authors or by others which do not confirm the main experimental conclusion of the original publication. Readers wishing to draw the editors’ attention to published work requiring retraction should first contact the author(s) of the book chapter or monograph and then write to the publisher.
The Academic Editor will seek advice from reviewers if they judge that the information is likely to draw into question the main conclusions of the published book chapter or monograph. Infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like, duplicate publication, copyright infringement, unreliable findings, data fabrication, and unethical research practices will also result in a book chapter or monograph being retracted. All co-authors will be asked to agree to a retraction. In cases where some co-authors decline to sign a retraction, the editors reserve the right to publish the retraction with the dissenting author(s) identified.
In very rare circumstances it may be necessary to remove the published book chapter or the monograph. This will only occur where the book chapter or the monograph is clearly defamatory or infringes others’ legal rights, or where the published work is, or there is good reason to expect it will be, the subject of a court order, or where the book chapter or the monograph, if acted upon, might pose a serious health risk. In these circumstances, while the bibliographic information (title and authors) will be retained online, the text will be replaced with a page indicating that the published work has been removed for legal reasons.
Correction in the online version will be linked to the original published work (and vice versa), will make the retracted status clear in the preceding screen, and the book chapter or the monograph will bear a “retracted” watermark throughout.
A chapter retracted on grounds of copyright infringement may be REMOVED by the publisher upon receipt of a removal request from the original copyright owner. A chapter may also be REMOVED by the publisher if it has been retracted due to the following reasons: when a chapter is harmful to the scientific community or when a chapter is derogatory in nature. In such cases no formal removal notice will be issued/published; however, the reason for removal will be displayed in place of a retracted and subsequently removed chapter.